News General News Editorials Indonesia Water Portal Friday, 20 January 2023
Jakarta is hit by a tidal flood every year and cause some loss for the city. The city risk on sinking also higher because of land subsidence problem. Without any significant action, it is predicted that Jakarta will face USD 521 million loss risks on 2050 caused by flood. To overcome the sinking problem, Indonesian government plays an active role on the international action to combat climate change. In addition, Indonesian government also implements National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD) project, in which create giant sea wall and land reclamation on the Jakarta Bay.
Sea Level Rise Condition in Jakarta
Jakarta has been steadily growing in population and size since the 1940s and many of its inhabitants come in search of better economic conditions. This expansion has been poorly controlled by the government, and has led to a particularly harmful practice. Poorer households use groundwater because piped water is considered a luxury. Excessive groundwater drainage is making Jakarta sink about 5 to 10 centimetres each year, about 130 times faster than sea level rise.
The dangerous combination of rising waters and sinking land means Jakarta will likely be partly submerged by 2050. The government plans to spend USD $33 billion to move the entire city, but they maybe could have cushioned the blow had they regulated the city’s expansion with more care. We have modelled what extreme flooding, combining storm surges, high tides and rising sea levels would look like in Jakarta by 2100 if no action is taken.
Sea level rise projections by 2100 for two scenarios with the amount of rise in meters indicated (mild = 3m; extreme = 5m). Percentage and total population displacement indicated bottom right (Source: earth.org).
Is NCICD Project Still Going?
NCICD is a project to deal with tidal floods and efforts to prevent Jakarta from sinking. The construction ofthe embankmenton the coast of Jakarta under the National Capital Integrated Coastal Development ( NCICD ) program has only been completed about 13 kilometers from the priority development of 46 kilometers. He said the remaining 33 kilometers would be worked on by the DKI Provincial Government for 11 kilometers, the PUPR Ministry for 11 kilometers and PT Pelindo II or KSOP Sunda Kelapa for the rest.
“Currently, two DKI authority clusters have been completed in accordance with the target length of the critical embankment trace listed in the MOU between the Ministry of PUPR and the DKI provincial government in 2020,” said DKI Jakarta Water Resources (SDA) Office Secretary, Dudi Gardesi , in August 2022.
NCICD divided into 3 phases:
1. Phase A: the construction of the coastal embankment
2. Phase B: giant sea wall
3. Phase C: giant sea wall on the east side
Referring to the NCICD graphical data from the DKI Jakarta Water Resources (SDA) Agency, there are at least four locations that are under the authority of the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government. The length of the route is based on the results of a detailed technical planning review (detail engineering design/DED) for the Integrated Coastal Development of the National Capital City (PTPIN) of the Ministry of PUPR in 2021.
The four locations are in Muara Angke for 3,471 km, Mutiara Beach for 1,058 km, Sunda Kelapa for 2,070 km and Kali Blencong for 1,708 km. Here are the details:
1. Muara Angke (completion plan in 2023-2026 with the estimated budget IDR 671 billion)
2. Pantai Mutiara (completion plan in 2025-2027 with the estimated budget IDR 171 billion)
3. Sunda Kelapa (completion plan in 2023-2025 with the estimated budget IDR 472 billion)
4. Kali Blencong (completion plan in 2023-2024 with the estimated budget IDR 71 billion)
Total: IDR 1,385 trillion
Overall, the total giant sea wall that was built is 37,356 km long. So far, a total of 17,093 km of embankments that have been built. Meanwhile, 20,263 km of which have not been built, with details of 9,151 km being the task of the PUPR Ministry and 11,112 km being the task of the DKI Provincial Government.
Could NCIDC be a Solution To Long-term Coastal Flooding?
Trisakti University City Planning Observer, Nirwono Yoga, said the construction of the giant embankment was only a temporary solution in anticipation of tidal flooding on the coast of Jakarta.
“Instead of concrete embankments which are expensive and unsustainable, it would be better to develop the mangrove forests, the wider the better for reducing tidal floods,” said Nirwono, Tuesday (27/12/2022). The construction of the giant embankment requires high costs, such as construction, maintenance, and elevation costs according to rising sea levels. It is believed that reforestation of the mangrove forest on the north coast of Jakarta will not only anticipate tidal floods, but also prevent coastal abrasion and seawater intrusion, as well as reduce tsunamis. Meanwhile, the giant sea wall project is not environmentally friendly because it requires huge costs which will actually be more expensive in the future, so it is inefficient and wasteful.